Day 2 :
Elkem Silicones, France
Keynote: Additive manufacturing for health care & soft robotic applications using silicone elastomers
Time : 10:00-10:40
Jean-Marc Frances has graduated from the National School of Chemistry of Toulouse (today ENSIACET, France) in 1981 and Doctor Engineer in Chemistry in 1983. He has spent his industrial career at Rhône-Poulenc and Rhodia before joining Bluestar Silicones in 2007 now Elkem Silicones since 2017. He is Technology & Scientific Coordinator for Elkem Silicones R&D, Director of incubator projects fueled by Open Innovation. In such position, he has been working on one main industrial challenge which is the development of the additive manufacturing processes with silicones.
Manufacturers of medical devices and soft robotics use silicone materials to design a wide range of products, such as tubing and drains, drug delivery systems, pacemakers & valves, vaginal rings, hearing aids, pneumatic actuators, etc. Silicones used in medical devices must be biocompatible, reliable, precise, flexible and durable, efficiently ensuring the protection of sensitive components from corrosive body fluids. Silicones used in soft robotics must be with high stretch ability, and able to be sollicitated in infinite number of cycles. This presentation will introduce the new challenges and benefits of additive manufacturing (AM) to make personalized silicone elastomers for medical devices and soft robotics. Due to their low elastic modulus and poor shape retaining ability during the layer-by-layer process, silicone elastomers AM could be technically challenging and a good understanding of the relationships between input and output parameters during the AM is key. Mastering such parameters along with the 3D printer machine and the silicone chemistry has allowed us to predict the aspect but also the mechanical behavior and performances of the 3D printed part. As an example, 3D-printed silicone elastomer medical devices or actuators combining complex shapes, high overhangs and mechanical performances can be now obtained in one shot process with one or several products for such domains. The results as implants and actuators fit perfectly with the functional needs. The AM of silicone elastomeric materials open the door also to multi materials since silicone elastomer AM is also progressing very fast with the use of new reliable, accurate, printing equipment. It is also essential to get a high level of performance since the question of qualification of the full chain of medical device manufacturing which comply with regulatory issues is key for the future of this industry.
Politecnico di Torino, Italy
Keynote: Strategic developments and future prospects of metal additive manufacturing
Time : 10:40-11:20
Lombardi Mariangela is an Associate Professor in Material Science and Technology. She holds a PhD degree in Materials Science and Technology from Politecnico di Torino and INSA (Institut National des Sciences Appliquées) of Lyon (2009). She gained experience in the field of material research over the last 10 years. She is involved in about 12 Regional, National or European projects focused on materials development and optimization, characterization and testing. She is Author of about 80 papers, including publications on international papers and international conference proceedings, in the areas of material science and engineering.
Nowadays additive manufacturing (AM) techniques are recognized to be promising technologies with an enormously growing of research activities in the scientific and industrial panorama. In particular, AM of metal parts and advanced net shape metal powder technologies provide marked economic and technical gains in the production of small-to-medium parts with materials difficult to be processed. Notwithstanding this, the efficiency of processes and supply chain is strongly influenced by the limited materials palette currently available on the market, the high costs and very high time-to-deliver of the powders, the quality and reproducibility modifying the features of the final components. In addition, the exploitation of manufacturing systems in industrial productions dictates high quality processes with efficient control strategies. Considering all these aspects, a deep knowledge of part redesigns and process optimization is necessary in order to enhance part quality and to obtain a cost reduction, for new applications or future perspectives from the point of view of the final users and new adopters of additive technologies. At the same time, the control and the optimization of material behavior in process and post-process conditions is fundamental for increasing AM industrial exploitation, together with the development of new materials, such as aluminium alloys and metal-matrix composites, nickel super alloys, titanium alloys and steels for laser-based AM, intermetallic materials and super-alloys for electron beam melting.
- 3D Printing Industries | 3D Image Processing and Visualization | 3D printing technology and innovations | Metal 3D Printing | Polymers in 3d printing | 3D Bio printing | Lasers in 3D Printing in Manufacturing Industry | 3D Printing of Supply Chain Management | Tissue and Organ Printing | 3D Printing Technology Impact on Manufacturing Industry
Location: Rome, Italy
Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic
José L Ocaña
UPM Laser Centre - Polytechnic University of Madrid, Spain
NUST “MISiS”, Russia
Title: Selective laser melting of aluminum matrix composites with ceramic fillers
Arnautov A is now at the completion of his PhD from the research group of Prof. Dr.-Ing. Alexander Gromov, NUST “MISiS” University, Moscow. He is the Head of the Department at RUSAL Co., a premier research organization. He has published more than 10 papers in reputed journals and conference proceeding on additive manufacturing.
3D printed aluminum details are lightweight (density 2700 kg/m3) and moldable, having an elasticity modulus of ~70 MPa. These are the main requirements of the 3D printing industry. However, aluminum is not strong or hard enough: the tensile strength even for the duralumin alloy is ~500 MPa, and its hardness HB sits at 20 kgf/mm2. The developed modifying precursors for aluminum matrix composites (AMC), based on aluminum nitrides and oxides obtained through combustion or hydrothermal/dry Al oxidation, have become the basis of the new composite. We develop a technology to strengthen the AMC obtained by 3D printing, and we have obtained innovative precursor-modifiers. Combustion or oxidation products - aluminum nitrides and oxides - are specifically prepared for sintering branched surfaces with transition nanolayers formed between the particles. It is the special properties and structure of the surface that allows the particles to be firmly attached to the aluminum matrix and, as a result, increase the strength of the obtained composites.
Blue Dot Solutions, Poland
Title: Use of additive manufacturing technology for fabrication of lattice structures via SLS method in
Krzysztof Kanawka, PhD DIC, serves as CEO of a Polish space sector company Blue Dot Solutions. The company is active in fields such as practical use of satellite data, space markets (especially in Europe) and mechanical engineering. In the past Krzysztof Kanawka studied at the Department of Chemical Engineering at Imperial College London, where he did PhD in the field of (cermet) Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.
This abstract summarises the project named “Development of a multifunctional case for aerospace electronics, which special focus on power electronics and power supply”. This project was realised by the Blue Dot Solutions company and co-financed by the (Polish) National Research And Development Centre.
Several different types of lattice materials fabricated via the SLS method were designed and examined. Initially, these structures were simulated, a then were sintered via the SLS method. The material used for this project was “Alumide”, whic is a 7:3 mix of PA12 polyamid and aluminium. The main properties of this metallic-looking material are: high stiffness and very good characteristics for post-processing. Pieces of Alumide materials can undergo various post- treatment techniques, such as sanding, polishing or grinding.
Studies and numerical simulations were done on several basic isotropic cells. Five of them were analysed further: 1e, 1f, 1h, 2b, 5 (il. 1).
The goal of the analisis was to determine the equivalent of thickness in dependence to structure of a single cell. The numerical analysis was done for thermal and thermodynamical cases (il. 2).
Stockholm University, Sweden
Title: 3D printed porous bioscaffolds based on cellulose nanocrystals
Sahar Sultan is a third year PhD student in Stockholm University. She is actively working with 3D printing of cellulose nanoparticles. She has also served industry for 5 years by working as a researcher and safety officer in a solar cell company called Exeger Sweden AB.
Nanocellulose extracted from natural resources are used extensively in biomedical field. They have properties of cellulose, such as potential for chemical modification, low toxicity, biocompatibility, biodegradability, low toxicity, high mechanical properties, renewability as well as nanoscale characteristics like high specific surface area, rheological and optical properties. Due to the inherent shear thinning property of nanocellulose, the 3-Dimensional (3D) printing technique has revolutionized the bioscaffolds with customization, complex geometries, controlled porosity, bioprinting and hierarchical features, in terms of composition and structural designs. Furthermore, during 3D printing the high aspect ratio of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) is expected to induce shear alignment yielding directionality in the 3D printed scaffolds. CNCs based double crosslinked interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogel has been made and 3D printed into 2D and 3D scaffolds with uniform and gradient porosity. The pore sizes are in the range of 80-2080 µm and 195-2382 µm in the wet and freeze-dried states respectively. These pores are distributed in a controlled manner that in turn provides gradation in density and porosity of the 3D printed hydrogel scaffolds. The directionality studies showed that CNCs tend to align parallel to the printing direction and degree of orientation varies between 61-76 %, depending on the point of measurement within the 3D printed scaffolds. In addition, this study also highlights the importance of nozzle movement during 3D printing to achieve scaffolds with better resolution, higher dimensions and good shape fidelity. The alignment of nanocrystals in this work yields directionality that can serve as an important step toward the development of tailored architectures. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D printing in developing bio-based scaffolds with controlled pore sizes, gradient pore structures and customized geometry for optimal tissue regeneration applications.
Reliability Association of Korea, South Korea
Title: Reliability design of mechanical systems subject to repetitive stresses
Seong-Woo Woo has a BS and MS in Mechanical Engineering, and he has obtained PhD in Mechanical Engineering from Texas A&M University. He major in energy system such as HVAC and its heat transfer, optimal design and control of refrigerator, reliability design of thermal components, and failure Analysis of thermal components in marketplace using the non-destructive such as SEM & X-ray. He worked in Agency for Defense Development, Chinhae, South Korea, where he was Researcher in Charge of Development of Naval Weapon System. Now he is working as a Senior Reliability Engineer in Side-by-Side Refrigerator Division, Digital Appliance, Samsung Electronics, and focus on enhancing the life of refrigerator as using the accelerating life testing. He also has experience about side-by-side refrigerator design for best buy, Lowe’s, cabinet-depth refrigerator design for general electrics.
The basic reliability concepts - parametric ALT plan, failure mechanism and design, acceleration factor, and sample size equation were used in the development of a parametric accelerated life testing method to assess the reliability quantitative test specifications (RQ) of mechanical systems subjected to repetitive stresses. To calculate the acceler►ation factor of the mechanical system, a generalized life-stress failure model with a new effort concept was derived and recommended. The new sample size equation with the acceleration factor also enabled the parametric ALT to quickly evaluate the expected lifetime. This new parametric ALT should help an engineer uncover the design parameters affecting reliability during the design process of the mechanical system. Consequently, it should help companies improve product reliability and avoid recalls due to the product failures in the field. As the improper design parameters in the design phase are experimentally identified by this new reliability design method and recent patents are addressed, the mechanical system should improve in reliability as measured by the increase in lifetime, LB, and the reduction in failure rate, l.
University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, USA
Title: 4D printers: integration of multi-material additive manufacturing with intelligent heads to predict the fourth dimension
Farhang Momeni received his BS in Aerospace Engineering from the Sharif University of Technology in 2014. He finished his BS in three years rather than the usual four years (Sep 2011-Sep 2014), while he was ranked 1st among all B.S. students in Aerospace Engineering at the Sharif University of Technology that graduated in 2014. He published two journal articles in Thermodynamics before his B.S. graduation date. Then, in 2015, he received Direct Ph.D. admission with fellowship award from the Mechanical Engineering department at the University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, where he obtained his M.S. and Ph.D. in 2017 and 2018, respectively.
3D printing is a relatively known manufacturing process and the inimitable features provided by 3D printing (such as complexity-free geometry and material saving) are also well-known. Similarly, 4D printing should be explicitly underpinned as a novel manufacturing technology and the unique traits empowered by 4D printing should be elucidated too. 4D printing was initially defined as a combination of shape memory materials and additive manufacturing. In our recent review paper, I illustrated the differences between 3D and 4D printing. In addition to smart (not necessarily shape memory) materials and additive manufacturing, “4D printing mathematics” is also required to yield a “4D printed” structure. Furthermore, unlike 3D printers, 4D printers are not available and the 4D printing process is currently accomplished by existing 3D printers in a passive manner. The phrase “4D printer” was used in the related literature. However, I need to clarify that; “4D printer” is not truly established by converting a single-material printer into a multi-material printer, or by incorporating different additive manufacturing methods into one printer. I should add that a “4D printer” must be capable of investigating and predicting the “4th D”. Consequently, an “intelligent head” should be constructed and integrated with present multi-material printers. In this plenary talk, I will underpin 4D printing as a novel manufacturing paradigm, illuminate its unique features, and particularly prove its energy-saving feature by deriving its minimum energy consumption limit. Finally, I will embody future 4D printers and their connections to our laws of 4D printing.